Démocratie directe

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Définition

En démocratie directe, le pouvoir provient également de tous et s’exerce également sur tous, on dit que le peuple est souverain, c’est-à-dire qu’il détient tous les pouvoirs (exécutif, législatif, judiciaire).
Il n’y a donc pas ou presque pas de représentants politiques (ministres, maires, parlementaires, etc).

On peut concevoir l’organisation des pouvoirs dans une hypothétique démocratie directe ainsi :

La nation est le pouvoir législatif :
En effet elle détient l’initiative législative par le droit de pétition et toutes les lois doivent être votées par un suffrage direct véritablement universel, c’est-à-dire qui nécessite l’existence d’un vote obligatoire.

La nation est le pouvoir judiciaire dans la limite de la raison et de l’instruction que possède chaque individu :
La justice doit être populaire dans le plus de domaines où cela est possible et obligatoirement dans les affaires de droit commun.
C’est-à-dire rendue par des gens choisis aléatoirement parmi les citoyens n’ayant jamais été reconnus coupables de crimes ou de délits. Ce système n’est garant de l’impartialité que si l’instruction du peuple, notamment en matière de droit, est la mission première de la communauté. Cependant cette mission de service public peut pour partie ou pour tout être déléguée à d’autres organismes dès lors que ceux-ci sont soumis à un strict contrôle par des commissions populaires.

La nation a un contrôle absolu sur le pouvoir exécutif :
D’une part pour que le gouvernement représente toujours la volonté du peuple tous les mandats doivent être courts et conférés au suffrage universel direct, ainsi à tout moment une motion de censure contre le gouvernement doit pouvoir être engagée. Il est impératif que si une large majorité du peuple considère qu’une faute grave (non-respect des principes fondateurs de la république, alliances diplomatiques inacceptables) a été commise, le gouvernement soit destitué dans les plus brefs délais.
D’autre part, pour empêcher tout abus de pouvoir, le cumul des mandats doit être impossible et l’initiative législative dont dispose le pouvoir exécutif ne peut se traduire que par des référendums. Pour permettre le bon déroulement de la vie des citoyens, le nombre de lois pouvant être instituées sur une certaine période de temps doit être limité (ex : maximum un référendum par semaine). Une telle mesure permet d’empêcher l’inflation législative, un des grands maux des « démocraties représentatives », par l’usage de décrets gouvernementaux (mesure de faible importance non soumis au vote populaire). Évidemment ces décrets peuvent être abrogés par pétition comme toutes les autres lois.

La démocratie directe est un processus collectif de décision qui se fonde sur une organisation horizontale, plutôt que hiérarchique, de la société humaine. Elle est, tout comme le régime représentatif, un concept. Théoriquement, elle peut-être appliquée au niveau du régime politique d’un pays comme au niveau des processus collectifs de décision de tous types d’associations locales ou virtuelles (via Internet).

Aspect historique et sémantique

La démocratie, au sens étymologique de pouvoir (kratos) du peuple (demos) ne peut être que directe. L’expression de « démocratie représentative » peut être considérée comme un leurre car c’est seulement dans une démocratie directe que le pouvoir est le reflet exact des aspirations du peuple. C’est à partir de la naissance de régimes représentatifs parlementaires à la fin du XVIIIe siècle que la classe politique, constituée presque exclusivement de personnes appartenant aux classes sociales aisées, a, pour justifier moralement sa fonction, détourné la définition sémantique du terme démocratie en l’assimilant au régime représentatif/parlementaire.

La démocratie directe, au sens d’un régime dans lequel la nation est souveraine, n’a réellement existé que dans l’Athènes du VIe siècle avant JC avec les réformes successives de Solon (-594) et Clisthène (-508) :
La nation était effectivement souveraine avec un vote des lois par tous les citoyens réunis, et le tirage au sort des magistrats (pouvoir exécutif) ainsi que des juges qui recevaient des mandats d’un an. Des indemnités journalières de présence étaient même octroyées aux plus pauvres pour leur permettre d’assurer leurs fonctions civiques.
Cependant les femmes étant considérées comme d’éternelles mineures et les esclaves comme des biens ils étaient exclus de la communauté civique. Le système athénien comportait donc des défauts inhérents à son époque et qui vont à l’encontre de notre conception moderne de la démocratie : religion officielle, avilissement de la femme, économie fondée sur l’esclavage.

Bien que la démocratie directe ne se concrétisa jamais par un système plus égalitaire dans l’histoire, si ce n’est dans l’esprit de Jean-Jacques Rousseau qui justifia sa nécessité dans Du Contrat Social (1762) et entama même une ébauche d’une Constitution de démocratie directe pour la Corse en 1764, l’utopie de l’instauration d’une démocratie directe moderne existe toujours.

Démocratie directe et services publics

La démocratie directe n’implique pas nécessairement la suppression de l’État on ne peut donc pas l’assimiler à une forme d’anarchisme. Les missions des services publics et leur fonctionnement sont collectivement décidés par la communauté civique.

Allocation du budget public

Des sondages ont montré que si le budget alloué aux services publics était déterminé collectivement, l’allocation de ce budget serait très différente de ce qu’elle est en régime représentatif. Par exemple, le budget de l’armée et des services secrets serait réduit au profit des budgets alloués à des services tels que les pensions ou les transports en commun.

Contrôle des services publics

Par exemple les attributions de contrats publics à des entreprises privées (source importante de détournements de fonds publics au profit d’intérêts privés, via des représentants politiques corrompus) pourraient être collectives, de la conception à l’octroi jusqu’au suivi de réalisation. La publication, entres autres sur Internet, de tous les documents relatifs aux contrats publics, permettrait théoriquement à chacun de procéder aux vérifications qui dans un régime représentatif sont opérées par des représentants politiques ou des agents de l’administration publique. Ce principe de contrôle de la corruption se retrouve dans la démocratie participative.

Justice

Comme dit plus haut, le principe de démocratie directe appliqué dans le domaine judiciaire correspond à l’instauration de tirages au sort pour former des jurys populaires. Un tel système suppose un encadrement strict pour empêcher un manque d’objectivité du jury du à une influence extérieure : médias, parcours personnel des jurés, etc. Il paraît difficilement concevable de déléguer intégralement le pouvoir judiciaire aux citoyens ordinaires à cause de la complexité de certaines affaires nécessitant des connaissances dans des domaines très précis : droit international, droit commercial, scandales médicaux et bioéthique.

Condition à l’application effective de la démocratie directe

Pour des considérations techniques évidentes un régime de démocratie directe ne peut être instauré dans des États tels que nous les connaissons. En effet leur trop grande taille empêche l’existence d’un débat réel entre chaque citoyen, et la mobilisation fréquente d’une importante population pour des votes générerait certainement des problèmes d’organisation en apparence insoluble. Certains considèrent aujourd’hui que le vote électronique à domicile pourrait supprimer cet empêchement. Cependant d’autres pensent qu’un tel système en banalisant le vote pourrait amener à l’instauration de lois liberticides, voire de dictatures sous l’influence de médias de propagande et de démagogues. C’est pourquoi la solution classique imaginée par de partisans de la démocratie directe, dont Rousseau, est toujours avancée :

Tout d’abord pour des considérations techniques un vote de toute la nation ne semble possible que dans un État à faible population, pourtant le modèle de la démocratie directe se veut universel.

Le problème n’est donc soluble que si l’on postule l’instauration de communautés démocratiques comprenant au maximum 500 000 habitants, mais pouvant être de taille beaucoup plus réduite (minimum 30 selon certains sociologues). De telles entités étatiques auraient l’avantage supplémentaire d’être au plus près des besoins du citoyen, notamment en termes d’aménagement du territoire et d’infrastructures.

Toutefois la naissance de ces communautés démocratiques semble impossible du fait qu’elle sous-entend la dissolution des États existants et va ainsi à l’encontre du droit fondamental des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes. Cette condamnation hâtive provient d’une incompréhension de l’objectif de ces communautés, qui n’est pas de se substituer à l’identité nationale pour leurs théoriciens. La culture et la langue propre à chaque peuple n’est pas remise en cause dans cette nouvelle organisation, puisque rien n’empêche des coopérations renforcées entre différentes communautés démocratiques, dès lors que ces coopérations respectent les principes de la démocratie directe, c’est-à-dire ont été soumises à l’approbation des citoyens et sont — comme tout dispositif législatif — abrogeables par pétition.

La seconde attaque que subit ce modèle vise sa supposée faiblesse militaire auquel les partisans de la démocratie directe répondent par la création d’un fédéralisme souple entre les démocraties « classiques » et directes régi par les principes démocratiques les plus stricts (vote à la majorité simple requérant la représentation de toutes les nations membres). Cette structure se doit d’être à géométrie variable, fonction seulement de la volonté de chaque nation.

Limites

Le concept de démocratie a ses propres limites en matière morale puisqu’il revient aussi à l’oppression d’une partie de la population par une autre partie, la démocratie reconnaissant implicitement à une majorité de la population le droit d’imposer sa volonté à la minorité. Cette dictature démocratique fut notamment dénoncée par Emmanuel Kant (partisan du despotisme éclairé) et Jean-Jacques Rousseau (partisan de la démocratie directe) puis Alexis de Tocqueville (grand penseur libéral).

C’est parce que la démocratie repose sur le principe implicite d’oppression de la minorité par la majorité certains revendiquent moralement le droit à la désobéissance civile. Cependant d’autres considèrent qu’une liberté de circulation absolue des personnes permet à la minorité non représentée par le gouvernement démocratique en place de ne pas subir la dictature de la majorité en lui laissant la possibilité de quitter son pays.

La démocratie directe n’offre aucune garantie de sauvegarder les libertés, ni de protéger les minorités, car elle peut entraîner un accroissement du poids de l’État et une diminution des droits individuels. Elle offre seulement les avantages suivants :

  • possibilité de rejeter une loi votée par le parlement (droit de veto) ;
  • possibilité de destituer des mandataires politiques.

Voir aussi

Citations

  • La démocratie directe, qui amène l’électeur à se prononcer sur des thèmes économiques, conduit à des décisions très critiquables sous l’angle économique. Les économistes l’expliquent par ce qu’ils nomment « la recherche de rentes de la part des groupes d’intérêts ». (Emmanuel Garessus)
  • En tant que libéral, la démocratie directe comporte quantité d’avantages, mais elle ne protège pas l’individu. Il ne sert à rien d’en faire le critère ultime. A l’extrême, elle peut mener à une dictature de la majorité. (Emmanuel Garessus)

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